Events ... there have been a lot of disasters on this day
* 69 - Year of the four emperors: Following Galba, Otho and Vitellius, Vespasian becomes the fourth Emperor of Rome within a year.
* 1620 - Plymouth Colony: William Bradford and the Mayflower Pilgrims land on what is now known as Plymouth Rock in Plymouth, Massachusetts.
* 1844 - The Rochdale Pioneers commence business at their cooperative in Rochdale, England, starting the Cooperative movement.
* 1861 - Medal of Honor: Public Resolution 82, containing a provision for a Navy Medal of Valor, is signed into law by President Abraham Lincoln.
* 1865 - Kappa Alpha Order is founded under the name of Phi Kappa Chi at Washington College (now Washington and Lee University) in Lexington, Virginia.
* 1872 - Challenger expedition: HMS Challenger, commanded by Captain George Nares, sails from Portsmouth.
* 1883 - The first Permanent Force cavalry and infantry regiments of the Canadian Army are formed: The Royal Canadian Dragoons and The Royal Canadian Regiment
* 1912 - The movie Das Mirakel premiered in Germany.
* 1913 - Arthur Wynne's "word-cross", the first crossword puzzle, is published in the New York World.
* 1917 - Meiji Dairies, a Japanese dairy industry company, is founded.
* 1936 - First flight of the Junkers JU-88 bomber prototype.
* 1937 - The film Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs is premiered at the Carthay Circle Theater in Los Angeles.
* 1958 - French presidential election, 1958: Charles de Gaulle is elected President of France as his Union des Démocrates pour la République party gain 78.5% of the vote.
* 1962 - Rondane National Park is established as Norway's first national park.
* 1967 - Louis Washkansky, the first man to undergo a heart transplant, dies in Cape Town, South Africa, after living for 18 days.
* 1968 - Apollo program: Apollo 8, the first manned mission to the moon, is launched from the Kennedy Space Center in Florida. At 2h:50m:37s Mission elapsed time (MES), the crew performs the first ever manned Trans Lunar Injection and become the first humans to leave the Earth's gravity field.
* 1970 - Elvis Presley meets with President Richard Nixon to discuss the war on drugs.
* 1970 - The F-14 Tomcat flies for the first time.
* 1971 - The United Nations Security Council chooses Kurt Waldheim to succeed U Thant as Secretary-General.
* 1973 - The Geneva Conference on the Arab-Israeli conflict opens.
* 1979 - Lancaster House Agreement: An independence agreement for Rhodesia is signed in London by Lord Carrington, Sir Ian Gilmour, Robert Mugabe, Joshua Nkomo, Bishop Abel Muzorewa and Dr S C Mundawarara.
* 1987 - The passenger ferry Doña Paz sinks after colliding with the oil tanker Vector 1 in the Tablas Strait in the Philippines, killing 1,565.
* 1988 - A bomb explodes on board Pan Am flight 103 over Lockerbie, Dumfries and Galloway, Scotland, killing 270.
* 1991 - Charilaos Florakis is elected honorary president of the Communist Party of Greece.
* 1992 - A Dutch DC-10, flight Martinair MP 495, crashes at Faro Airport (Portugal), killing 56 people.
* 1994 - A homemade bomb goes off on the # 4 train on Fulton Street in New York City.
* 1995 - The city of Bethlehem passes from Israeli to Palestinian control.
* 1999 - The Spanish Civil Guard intercepts a van loaded with 950 kg of explosives that ETA intended to use to blow up Torre Picasso in Madrid.
Birthdays, there have been a lot of disasters here as well
* 1118 - Thomas Becket, Lord Chancellor of England and Archbishop of Canterbury (d. 1170)
* 1401 - Tommaso Masaccio, Italian painter (d. 1428)
* 1596 - Petro Mohyla, Moldovan Orthodox Metropolitan Bishop of Kiev and Galicia (d. 1646)
* 1603 - Roger Williams, English theologian and colonist (d. 1684)
* 1714 - John Bradstreet, Canadian-born soldier (d. 1774)
* 1778 - Anders Sandøe Ørsted, Danish politician (d. 1860)
* 1795 - Leopold von Ranke, German historian (d. 1886)
* 1804 - Benjamin Disraeli, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (d. 1881)
* 1805 - Thomas Graham, British chemist (d. 1869)
* 1811 - Archibald Campbell Tait, Archbishop of Canterbury (d. 1882)
* 1815 - Thomas Couture French painter and teacher (d. 1879)
* 1818 - Amalia, Queen of Greece (d. 1875)
* 1832 - John H. Ketcham, American politician (d. 1906)
* 1843 - Thomas Bracken, Irish-born New Zealander poet (d. 1898)
* 1850 - Zdeněk Fibich, Bohemian composer (d. 1900)
* 1851 - Thomas Chipman McRae, American politician, 34th Governor of Arkansas (d. 1929)
* 1859 - Gustave Kahn, French poet (d. 1936)
* 1872 - Sidney Ainsworth, British actor (d. 1922)
* 1872 - Don Lorenzo Perosi, Italian composer (d. 1956)
* 1872 - Albert Payson Terhune, American author (d. 1942)
* 1873 - Blagoje Bersa, Croatian composer (d. 1934)
* 1876 - Jack Lang (John Thomas Lang), Premier of New South Wales (d. 1975)
* 1878 - Jan Łukasiewicz, Polish philosopher and mathematician (d. 1956)
* 1885 - Frank Patrick, hockey player (d. 1960)
* 1889 - Sewall Wright, American biologist (d. 1988)
* 1890 - Hermann Joseph Muller, American geneticist and Nobel laureate (d. 1967)
* 1891 - John William McCormack, American politician (d. 1980)
* 1892 - Walter Hagen, American golfer (d. 1969)
* 1892 - Rebecca West, American writer (d. 1983)
* 1896 - Leroy Robertson, American composer (d. 1971)
* 1905 - Anthony Powell, British author (d. 2000)
* 1909 - Seicho Matsumoto, Japanese mystery writer and journalist (d. 1992)
* 1911 - Josh Gibson, American baseball player (d. 1947)
* 1914 - Ivan Generalić, Austro-Hungarian-born Croatian painter (d. 1992)
* 1915 - Werner von Trapp, member of the Trapp Family Singers (d. 2007)
* 1917 - Heinrich Böll, German writer and Nobel laureate (d. 1985)
* 1917 - Sophie Masloff, American politician
* 1918 - Donald Regan, American White House Chief of Staff (d. 2003)
* 1918 - Kurt Waldheim, Austrian United Nations Secretary-General and Federal President of Austria (d. 2007)
* 1920 - Alicia Alonso, Cuban ballerina
* 1920 - Bob Bindig, cartoonist
* 1920 - Jean Gascon, Canadian actor (d. 1988)
* 1921 - Vampira (Maila Nurmi), Finnish-born actress
* 1921 - John Severin, American comics artist
* 1922 - Paul Winchell, American ventriloquist (d. 2005)
* 1923 - Intizar Hussain, Urdu writer and colomnist of Pakistan
* 1926 - Joe Paterno, American football coach
* 1932 - Edward Hoagland, American essayist
* 1935 - John G. Avildsen, American film director
* 1935 - Yusuf Bey (Joseph Stephens), American activist (d. 2003)
* 1935 - Phil Donahue, American talk show host
* 1935 - Edward Schreyer, Canadian politician, Premier of Manitoba
* 1937 - Jane Fonda, American actress
* 1937 - Donald F. Munson, American politician
* 1939 - Lloyd Axworthy, Canadian politician
* 1940 - Frank Zappa, American musician (d. 1993)
* 1940 - Ray Hildebrand, American singer (Paul & Paula)
* 1942 - Hu Jintao, Chinese president
* 1942 - Reinhard Mey, German singer
* 1942 - Carla Thomas, American singer
* 1943 - André Arthur. Quebec radio host
* 1944 - Michael Tilson Thomas, American conductor
* 1944 - Bill Atkinson, English footballer
* 1946 - Carl Wilson, American musician (The Beach Boys) (d. 1998)
* 1946 - Christopher Keene, American conductor (d. 1995)
* 1947 - Paco de Lucía, Spanish musician
* 1947 - Bryan Hamilton, Northern Irish footballer
* 1948 - Samuel L. Jackson, American actor
* 1948 - Willi Resetarits, Austrian musician
* 1948 - Dave Kingman, baseball player
* 1949 - Nikolaos Sifounakis, Greek politician
* 1950 - Jeffrey Katzenberg, American producer
* 1950 - Lillebjørn Nilsen, Norwegian singer-songwriter
* 1951 - Nick Gilder, English musician (Sweeney Todd)
* 1952 - Joaquín Andújar, baseball player
* 1953 - Betty Wright, American singer
* 1954 - Chris Evert, American tennis player
* 1955 - Jane Kaczmarek, American actress
* 1955 - Kazuyuki Sekiguchi, Japanese musician
* 1956 - Lee Roy Parnell, American country singer
* 1957 - Tom Henke, American baseball player
* 1957 - Ray Romano, Italian-American comedian
* 1958 - Eric Coleman, Itinerant wise-ass
* 1959 - Florence Griffith Joyner, American sprinter (d. 1998)
* 1960 - Louis Demetrius Alvanis, London-based pianist
* 1960 - Roger McDowell, Former Major League Baseball Pitcher
* 1960 - Andy Van Slyke, baseball player
* 1961 - Francis Ng, Hong Kong actor
* 1961 - Ryuji Sasai, Japanese composer
* 1964 - Rob Kelly, English football manager
* 1964 - Fabiana Udenio, Argentine actress
* 1965 - Andy Dick, American actor and comedian
* 1965 - Anke Engelke, German comedian
* 1966 - Kiefer Sutherland, British-born Canadian actor
* 1966 - Karri Turner, American actress
* 1967 - Mikhail Saakashvili, Soviet-born President of Georgia
* 1969 - Julie Delpy, French actress
* 1969 - Mihails Zemļinskis, Latvian footballer
* 1970 - Jamie Theakston, English television presenter
* 1971 - Mathieu Chedid, French musician
* 1971 - Fenton Keogh, Australian celebrity chef
* 1971 - Brett Scallions, American singer (Fuel, The X's)
* 1972 - Latroy Hawkins, baseball player
* 1972 - Dustin Hermanson, baseball player
* 1972 - Matthew Duhan, Dementia weirdo and net.geek
* 1973 - Karmen Stavec, German-born Slovenian singer
* 1973 - Mike Alstott, American football player
* 1974 - Karrie Webb, Australian golfer
* 1975 - Paloma Herrera, Argentine ballet dancer
* 1976 - Mirela Manjani, Greek javelin thrower
* 1978 - Mike Vitar, American actor
* 1979 - Jay Ross, Manager of Network Operations for LATTV
* 1981 - Cristian Zaccardo, Italian football player
* 1981 - Lynda Thomas, Mexican singer
* 1981 - Sajid Mahmood, English cricketer
* 1982 - Mike Gansey, American basketball player
* 1984 - Darren Potter, Irish footballer
* 1985 - James Stewart Jr., American motorcycle racer
* 1987 - Edward Speelers, British Actor